C.F.W. Walther on the Sanctification Controversy Brewing

CFW WaltherIn another place in the same chapter, §52, Gerhard writes: “There are several reasons why this distinction between the Law and the Gospel must be accurately defined and strictly adhered to. In the first place, many instances from the history of the Church of days gone by might be adduced to show that the pure teaching of the article of justification is not preserved, and absolutely cannot be preserved, if the distinction of these two doctrines is neglected.” Woe to him who injects poison into the doctrine of justification! He poisons the well which God has dug for man’s salvation. Whoever takes this doctrine away from man robs him of everything; for he takes the very heart out of Christianity, which ceases to pulsate after this attack. The ladder for mounting up to heaven is taken away, and there is no longer any hope of saving men. “In the second place,” Gerhard continues, “when the doctrine of the Gospel is not separated from the Law by definite boundary-lines, the blessings of Christ are considerably obscured.” By ascribing to man some share in his own salvation, we rob Christ of all His glory. God has created us without our cooperation, and He wants to save us the same way. We are to thank Him for having created us with a hope of life everlasting. Even so He alone wants to save us. Woe to him who says that he must contribute something towards his own salvation! He deprives Christ of His entire merit. For Jesus is called the Savior, not a helper towards salvation, such as preachers are. Jesus has achieved our entire salvation. That is why we were so determined in our Predestinarian Controversy. For the basic element in the controversy has been that we insisted on keeping Law and Gospel separate, while our opponents mingle the one with the other. When they hear from us this statement: “Out of pure mercy, God has elected us to the praise of the glory of His grace; God vindicates for Himself exclusively the glory of saving us,” etc., they say: “That is a horrible doctrine! If that were true, God would be partial. No, He must have beheld something in men that prompted Him to elect this or that particular man. When He beheld something good in a person, He elected him.” If that were so, man would really be the principal cause of his salvation. In that case man could say, “Thank God, I have done my share towards being saved.” However, when we shall have arrived in our heavenly fatherland, this is what we shall say: “If I had my own way, I should never have found salvation; and even supposing I had found it by myself, I should have lost it again. Thou, O God, didst come and draw me to Thy Word, partly by tribulation, partly by anguish of heart, partly by sickness, etc. All these things Thou hast used as means to bring me into heaven, while I was always striving for perdition.” Yonder we shall see — and marvel — that there has not been an hour when God did not work in us to save us, and that there has not been an hour when we — wanted to be saved. Indeed, we are forced to say to God: “Thou alone hast redeemed me; Thou alone dost save me.” Verily, as sure as there is a living God in heaven, I cannot do anything towards my salvation. That is the point under discussion in this controversy.

In conclusion, Gerhard says: “In the third place, commingling Law and Gospel necessarily produces confusion of consciences because there is no true, reliable, and abiding comfort for consciences that have been alarmed and terrified if the gracious promises of the Gospel are falsified.” Commingling Law and Gospel brings about unrest of conscience. No matter how comforting the preaching is that people hear, it is of no help to them if there is a sting in it. The honey of the Gospel may at first taste good, but if a sting of the Law goes with it, everything is spoiled. My conscience cannot come to rest if I cannot say: “Nevertheless, according to His grace, God will receive me.” If the preacher says to me: “Come, for all things are now ready — provided you do this or that,” I am lost. For in that case I must ask myself, “Have I done as God desires?” and I shall find no help.

Fifth Evening Lecture, October 17, 1884

The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel

Dr. C.F.W. Walther

Definitions of Covenant

An excellent selection of how different theologians have defined the term ‘covenant’ is available here: https://www.gracecommunity-pca.org/podcasts/SundaySchool/Covenant/Definitions_of_Covenant.pdf

Distinguishing Law and Gospel Always Under Attack

The paradigm of distinguishing Law and Gospel is under attack.  The overarching fear seems to be that antinomianism will prevail in the church and practical holiness will not be pursued.  In this brief 3 minute video, Michael Horton, author and professor of Systematic Theology at Westminster Seminary in California, defines the Gospel in a narrow sense.  Some accuse this definition of the ‘Gospel’ of being out of accord with the Reformation understanding of the gospel.  It’s claimed he presents a ‘truncated gospel’ and some have called this some form of ‘Modern Day Reformed Thought’.

Here are some quotes from The Economy of the Covenants Between God and Man, (Escondido, California: den Dulk Foundation, 1990) Vol. 1 on the Gospel in the Narrow Sense https://covenantnurture.wordpress.com/2012/01/09/the-gospel-in-the-narrow-sense-herman-witsius/ These quotes provide evidence that Dr. Horton is completely in accord with the Reformation in his definition of the gospel.  Witsius elsewhere speaks of the 3rd use of the law throughout the Economy of the Covenants.  Michael Horton does the same in his writings and on his program the White Horse Inn.  The difference is Horton is attacked today by those that profess faith in Christ, even from within the Reformed churches.

What do God’s two words of Law and Gospel actually accomplish?  Michael Horton has some very helpful thoughts from his systematic theology, The Christian Faith: A Systematic Theology for Pilgrims On the Way, p. 755-56.

It is important to recognize while God’s Word is living and active, its  “two words” of law and gospel do different things.  The law kills by revealing our guilt, while the Spirit makes alive by the gospel (2 Co 3:6-18).  By speaking law, God silences and convicts us; by speaking the gospel, God justifies and renews us.  God’s energies, mediated by human language, not only inform us of judgment and grace but judge and save.
                Specifically, the gospel is that part of God’s word that gives life.  While everything that God says is true, useful, and full of impact, not everything that God says is saving.  First Peter 1:23-24 adds, “You have been born again, not of perishable seed but of imperishable, through the living and abiding word of God.”  Furthermore, it is not the word in general but the gospel in particular that is credited with this vivifying effect: “This word is the good news that was preached to you” (v. 25).  Similarly, Paul says that “faith comes from hearing… the word of Christ,” and more specifically, “the gospel of peace,” (Ro 10:15, 17).  Salvation is not something that one has to actively pursue, attain, and ascend to grasp, as if it were far away, but is as near as  “the word of faith that we proclaim” (v. 8).  We do not have to bring Christ up from the dead or ascend into heaven to bring him down, since he addresses us directly in his word (vv. 6-9).  The gospel is “the power of God for salvation” (Ro 1:16).
                Calvin observes that some parts of God’s Word engender fear and judgment.11 “For although faith believes every word of God, it rests solely on the word of grace or mercy, the promise of God’s fatherly goodwill,” which is realized only in and through Christ.12 “For in God faith seeks life,” says Calvin, “a life that is not found in commandments or declarations of penalties, but in the promise of mercy, and only in a freely given promise.”13 The only safe route, therefore, is to receive the Father through the incarnate Son.  Christ is the saving content of Scripture, the substance of its canonical unity.14 “This, then, is the true knowledge of Christ, if we receive him as he is offered by the Father: namely, clothed with his gospel.  For just as he has been appointed as the goal of our faith, so we cannot take the right road unless the gospel goes before us.”15

11. Calvin, Institutes 3.2.7; 3.2.29.
12. Ibid., 3.2.28-30.
13. Ibid., 3.2.29.
14. Ibid., 1.13.7.
15. Ibid., 3.2.6.

The Christian Faith: A Systematic Theology for Pilgrims On the Way, p. 755-56 by Michael Horton

Heidelberg is helpful here too.  We get faith from hearing the Gospel preached.

21. What is true faith?

True faith is not only a sure knowledge whereby I hold for truth all that God has revealed to us in His Word, but also a hearty trust, which the Holy Spirit works in me by the Gospel, that not only to others, but to me also, forgiveness of sins, everlasting righteousness, and salvation are freely given by God, merely of grace, only for the sake of Christ’s merits.

65. Since, then, we are made partakers of Christ and all His benefits by faith only, where does this faith come from?

The Holy Spirit works faith in our hearts by the preaching of the Holy Gospel, and confirms it by the use of the holy sacraments.

More resources for learning how to distinguish Law and Gospel are available here:

Calvin on Justification and Recent Misinterpretations of His View – J.V. Fesko

J.V. Fesko in his article on Calvin on Justification and Recent Misinterpretations of His View writes, “It is the contention of this essay that recent interpretation of Calvin that emphasizes the believer’s union with Christ at the expense of the imputed righteousness of Christ, and those who claim that there is a great divergence between Calvin and Luther and their respective explanations of justification, are incorrect. Rather, central to Calvin’s doctrine of justification is the imputed righteousness of Christ. There is also consonance between Luther and Calvin on justification, especially regarding the relationship between justification and sanctification, or works and the third use of the law.”  Read the full article here.

Calvin on Faith Assuring Us of God’s Favor and Promises


Now, in the divine benevolence, which faith is said to look to, we understand the possession of salvation and eternal life is obtained. For if, while God is favorable, no good can be lacking, when he assures us of his love we are abundantly and sufficiently assured of salvation. “Let him show his face,” says the prophet, “and we will be saved.” [Psalm 80:3 p.; cf. Psalm 79:4, Vg.] Hence Scripture establishes this as the sum of our salvation, that he has abolished all enmities and received us into grace [Ephesians 2:14]. By this they intimate that when God is reconciled to us no danger remains to prevent all things from prospering for us. Faith, therefore, having grasped the love of God, has promises of the present life and of that to come [1 Timothy 4:8], and firm assurance of all good things, but of such sort as can be perceived from the Word. For faith does not certainly promise itself either length of years or honor or riches in this life, since the Lord willed that none of these things be appointed for us. But it is content with this certainty: that, however many things fail us that have to do with the maintenance of this life, God will never fail. Rather, the chief assurance of faith rests in the expectation of the life to come, which has been placed beyond doubt through the Word of God. Yet whatever earthly miseries and calamities await those whom God has embraced in his love, these cannot hinder his benevolence from being their full happiness. Accordingly, when we would express the sum of blessedness, we have mentioned the grace of God; for from this fountain every sort of good thing flows unto us. And we may commonly observe in the Scriptures that we are recalled to the love of the Lord whenever mention is made not only of eternal salvation but of any good we may have. For this reason, David sings of that divine goodness which, when felt in the godly heart, is sweeter and more desirable than life itself [Psalm 63:3].

In short, if all things flow unto us according to our wish, but we are uncertain of God’s love or hatred, our happiness will be accursed and therefore miserable. But if in fatherly fashion God’s countenance beams upon us, even our miseries will be blessed. For they will be turned into aids to salvation. So Paul heaps up all adverse things, but glories that we are not separated from God’s love through them [Romans 8:35, cf. 5:39], and always begins his prayers with God’s grace, whence flows all prosperity; in like manner, against all terrors that disturb us David sets God’s favor alone: “If I walk in the midst of the shadow of death, I shall fear no evils, for thou art with me” [Psalm 22:4, Vg.; 23:4, EV]. And we always feel our minds wavering unless, content with God’s grace, they seek their peace in it, and hold fixed deep within what is said in the psalm: “Blessed is the people whose God is Jehovah, and the nation he has chosen as his inheritance” [Psalm 33:12, cf. Comm.].

(Basis of faith the free promise, given in the Word, of grace in Christ, 29-32) 29.


We make the freely given promise of God the foundation of faith because upon it faith properly rests. Faith is certain that God is true in all things whether he command or forbid, whether he promise or threaten; and it also obediently receives his commandments, observes his prohibitions, heeds his threats. Nevertheless, faith properly begins with the promise, rests in it, and ends in it. For in God faith seeks life: a life that is not found in commandments or declarations of penalties, but in the promise of mercy, and only in a freely given promise. For a conditional promise that sends us back to our own works does not promise life unless we discern its presence in ourselves. Therefore, if we would not have our faith tremble and waver, we must buttress it with the promise of salvation, which is willingly and freely offered to us by the Lord in consideration of our misery rather than our deserts. The apostle, therefore, bears this witness to the gospel: that it is the word of faith [Romans 10:8]. He distinguishes the gospel both from the precepts of the law and from the promises, since there is nothing that can establish faith except that generous embassy by which God reconciles the world to himself [cf. 2 Corinthians 5:19-20]. Thence, also, arises that frequent correlation of faith and gospel in the apostle, when he teaches that the ministry of the gospel is committed to him to further “obedience to the faith” [Romans 1:5], that “it is the power of God for salvation to every believer;…in it the righteousness of God is revealed through faith for faith” [Romans 1:16-17]. And no wonder! Indeed, since the gospel is the “ministry of reconciliation” [2 Corinthians 5:18], no other sufficiently firm testimony of God’s benevolence to us exists, the knowledge of which faith seeks.  

Therefore, when we say that faith must rest upon a freely given promise, we do not delay that believers embrace and grasp the Word of God in every respect: but we point out the promise of mercy as the proper goal of faith. As on the one hand believers ought to recognize God to be Judge and Avenger of wicked deeds, yet on the other hand they properly contemplate his kindness, since he is so described to them as to be considered “one who is kind” [cf. Psalm 86:5, Comm.], “and merciful” [cf. Psalm 103:8, Comm.; 102:8, Vg.], “far from anger and of great goodness” [cf. Psalm 103:8, Comm.], “sweet to all” [Psalm 144:9, Vg.], “pouring out his mercy upon all his works” [cf. Psalm 145:9, Comm.].

Source: John Calvin, The Institutes of the Christian Religion (1559) 3.2.28-29, Library of Christian Classics; John T. McNiell; trans. Ford Lewis Battles (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1959) http://media.sabda.org/alkitab-7/LIBRARY/CALVIN/CAL_BAT3.PDF

Heidelberg Catechism on Gospel – questions 1, 21, 60

1. What is your only comfort in life and in death?

That I, with body and soul, both in life and in death, am not my own, but belong to my faithful Savior Jesus Christ, who with His precious blood has fully satisfied for all my sins, and redeemed me from all the power of the devil; and so preserves me that without the will of my Father in heaven not a hair can fall from my head; indeed, that all things must work together for my salvation.  Wherefore, by His Holy Spirit, He also assures me of eternal life, and makes me heartily willing and ready from now on to live unto Him.

21. What is true faith?

True faith is not only a sure knowledge whereby I hold for truth all that God has revealed to us in His Word, but also a hearty trust, which the Holy Spirit works in me by the Gospel, that not only to others, but to me also, forgiveness of sins, everlasting righteousness, and salvation are freely given by God, merely of grace, only for the sake of Christ’s merits.

60. How are you righteous before God?

Only by true faith in Jesus Christ: that is, although my conscience accuses me, that I have grievously sinned against all the commandments of God, and have never kept any of them, and am still prone always to all evil; yet God, without any merit of mine, of mere grace, grants and imputes to me the perfect satisfaction, righteousness, and holiness of Christ, as if I had never committed nor had any sins, and had myself accomplished all the obedience which Christ has fulfilled for me; if only I accept such benefit with a believing heart.

Heidelberg Catechism Lord’s Day 23 – Questions 59-60 – Zacharius Ursinus Commentary


Question 59. What does it help you now, that you believe all this?

Answer. That I am righteous in Christ before God, and an heir of eternal life.[1]

[1] Hab 2:4; Jn 3:36; Rom 1:17, 5:1-2, 8:16; Tit 3:7

Question 60. How are you righteous before God?

Answer. Only by true faith in Jesus Christ:[1] that is, although my conscience accuses me, that I have grievously sinned against all the commandments of God, and have never kept any of them,[2] and am still prone always to all evil;[3] yet God, without any merit of mine,[4] of mere grace,[5] grants and imputes to me the perfect satisfaction,[6] righteousness, and holiness of Christ,[7] as if I had never committed nor had any sins, and had myself accomplished all the obedience which Christ has fulfilled for me;[8] if only I accept such benefit with a believing heart.[9]

[1] Rom 3:21-28; Gal 2:16; Eph 2:8-9; Php 3:8-11; [2] Rom 3:9-10; [3] Rom 7:23; [4] Dt 9:6; Ezek 36:22; Tit 3:4-5; [5] Rom 3:24; Eph 2:8; [6] 1 Jn 2:2; [7] Rom 4:3-5; 2 Cor 5:17-19; 1 Jn 2:1; [8] Rom 4:24-25; 2 Cor 5:21; [9] Jn 3:18; Acts 16:30-31; Rom 3:22, 28, 10:10


The doctrine of justification, which now follows, is one of the chief articles of our faith, not only because it treats of those things which are fundamental, but also because it is most frequently called in question by heretics. The controversies between the church and heretics have respect principally to two points: the one is concerning God, and the other concerning the justification of man in the sight of God. And such is the importance of these doctrines that if either one of them be overthrown, the other parts of our faith easily fall to pieces. Hence it becomes necessary for us, to fortify and establish ourselves, especially in these doctrines, against all the assaults of heretics. Concerning the doctrine of justification (for we have already spoken of the doctrine concerning God) of which the above questions of the Catechism treat, the following things are to be considered:

I. What is righteousness in general?
II. How mani-fold is it?
III. In what does righteousness differ from justification?
IV. What is our righteousness before God?
V. In what manner does it become ours, seeing it is without us?
VI. Why is it made ours, or wherefore does God impute it unto us for righteousness?


Righteousness is derived from right, which is the law, and is a conformity with the law, as sin or unrighteousness is the transgression of the law. It may be defined in general, as consisting in a conformity with God and the divine law; although a definition can hardly be given so general as to agree at the same time with God and creatures. Uncreated righteousness is God himself, the foundation, and rule or pattern of all righteousness. Created righteousness is an effect of uncreated or divine righteousness in rational creatures. Righteousness, therefore, in general, as far as it has respect to creatures, consists in fulfilling those laws which pertain to rational creatures; or, it is a conformity on the part of rational creatures with those laws which have respect to them. Finally, righteousness is the fulfillment of the law, and a conformity with the law is righteousness itself. This must be observed and held fast to, because our justification can only be effected by fulfilling the law. Evangelical righteousness is the fulfilling of the law, and does not conflict with it in the least. The gospel does not abolish the law, but establishes it.


Righteousness is in general either uncreated, as God himself is righteous, or it is created, as is the righteousness which belongs to rational creatures. Created righteousness is legal arid evangelical. By legal righteousness we mean the fulfilling of the law by one, who is thereby declared righteous; or it is such a fulfilling of the law as that which is accomplished by one’s own obedience; or it is a comformity to the law which he has who is declared righteous. This legal righteousness was the righteousness of Adam before the fall, and is in the angels, and in Christ as far as he is man. Evangelical righteousness is the fulfilling of the law, performed, not by us, but by another in our stead, and imputed unto us of God by faith.

Legal righteousness is performed, either by obedience to the law, or by punishment. The law requires one or the other. That which is performed by obedience is either universal or particular. Universal is the observing of all those laws which have respect to us; or it is obedience to all the laws which pertain to us. This righteousness is again of two kinds, perfect and imperfect. The former consists in internal and external obedience to all those laws which have respect to us; or it consists in perfect conformity with the law, as it is said: “Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words of this law to do them.”(Deut. 27:26.) By a righteousness that is imperfect, we mean that conformity with the law which is only begun, and which does not comply with all the requirements of the law, nor perform them in the manner which it prescribes. This righteousness consists also of two kinds, philosophical and Christian. Philosophical is a knowledge of the law of God, and of virtue, which is imperfect, indistinct and small, and a certain purpose of the will and heart to do those things which are right as far as that knowledge extends, together with a course of conduct in accordance with the law. Christian righteousness consists in regeneration, or a knowledge of God and the divine law, imperfect, indeed, but yet more excellent and perfect than that which is philosophical, grounding itself in faith and the love of God, which the Holy Ghost kindles in the minds and hearts of the faithful through the gospel, and which is at the same time joined with a sincere desire to obey God according to all his commandments. This form of righteousness belongs properly to those who are regenerated, and flows from a justifying faith.  That righteousness which is particular is that which renders to every one his own, and is either commutative as distributive.  The former is that which preserves an equality in contracts, or in the exchange of things and their prices.  Distributive justice is that which preserves a proportion in the distribution of offices, honors, goods, rewards and punishments, rendering to every one according to his just desert. Let the husbandman till the ground, the statesman direct the affairs of the republic, and the theologian instruct the church, and let rewards be given to the good, and punishments be inflicted upon the evil: “Render to all their dues; tribute to whom tribute is due; honor to whom honor.”(Rom. 13:7.)

Righteousness is also distinguished from the subjects into that of the person, and the cause. Righteousness of the person is when a person is just and conformable to the law; and that of the cause is when a person has a just and good cause in controversy, whether he himself be good or bad. David often comforts himself with this in the book of the Psalms. It is otherwise called the righteousness of a good conscience.


Righteousness is conformity with the law; or, it is the fulfilling of the law, or that by which we are justified before God.  Justification, on the other hand, is the application of this righteousness to any one. They differ, therefore, as shape and the application of it to an object, or as whiteness and whitening, or making white. Justification admits of the same division which we have made of righteousness, into that which is legal and evangelical. Legal justification consists in effecting in us conformity with God and the law. This is commenced in us when we are regenerated by the Holy Spirit. Evangelical justification is the application of evangelical righteousness; or, it is the application of the righteousness of another, which is without us in Christ; or, it is the imputation and application of that righteousness which Christ wrought out for us by his death upon the cross, and by his resurrection from the dead. It is not a transfusion of righteousness, or of the qualities thereof; but it is the acquitting, or the declaring us free from sin in the judgment of God, on the ground of the righteousness of another. Justification and the forgiveness of sins are, therefore, the same: for to justify is that God should not impute sin unto us, but accept of us and declare us righteous; or, which is the same thing, that he declare us righteous on the ground of the righteousness of Christ made over unto us. That this is the proper signification of the word is clear from these passages of Scripture in which it occurs: “In thy sight shall no man living be justified,”that is, no one shall be acquitted, or declared just by inherent righteousness. “Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered. Blessed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity,”&c. (Ps. 148:2; 31:1, 2.) Paul, in accordance with this declaration of the Psalmist, interprets
justification to be the remission of sins, where the word impute is repeated
seven times. (Rom. 4:7.)

Obj. He that is righteous is conformable to the law. To justify is to make righteous. Therefore to justify is to make the subject thereof conformable to the law. Ans. We grant the whole argument. To justify is to make the subject of it conformable to the law, either in himself, by a righteousness which is called his own, and which is inherent, infused and legal; or it is to be made righteous in another which is called imputed righteousness, the righteousness of faith, of the gospel, and of another, because it is not inherent in us, but in Christ. This consists also in conformity with the law; for faith does not make void the law, but establishes it. And such we may remark is our righteousness and justification; for we now speak of that righteousness with which we as sinners are justified before God in this life; and not of that by which we shall be accounted righteous in another life, or by which we would have been righteous had we not sinned.


The righteousness with which we are here justified before God, is not our conformity with the law, nor our good works, nor our faith; but it is the satisfaction which Christ rendered to the law in our stead; or the punishment which he endured in our behalf; and therefore the entire humiliation of Christ, from the moment of his conception to his glorification, including his assumption of humanity, his subjection to the law, his poverty, reproach, weakness, sufferings, death, &c., all of which he did willingly; yea, whatever he did and suffered to which he was not bound, as being righteous, and the Son of God, is all included in the satisfaction which he made for us, and in the righteousnoss which God graciously imputes to us, and all believers. This satisfaction is equivalent to the fulfilling of the law, or to the endurance of eternal punishment for sin, to one or the other of which the law binds all. “I determined not to know any thing among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified.” “Ye are complete in him.” “By the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.” “With his stripes we are healed.” “He was bruised for our iniquities.” “This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.” “Being justified freely, by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood.” “Blessed are they whose iniquities are for given.” “Being justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him.” “We were reconciled to God by the death of his Son.” “Though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might be rich.” “He redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us.” “In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins.” “The blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin.”(1 Cor. 2:2. Col. 2:10. Rom. 5:19. Is. 58:5, 6. Luke 22:20. Rom. 3:24, 25; 4:7; 5:9, 10. 2 Cor. 8:9. Gal. 8:18. Eph. 1:7. 1 John 1:7.) Christ fulfilled the law by the holiness of his human nature, and by his obedience, even unto the death of the cross. The holiness of his human nature was necessary to his obedience; for it became our mediator to be holy and righteous in himself, that he might be able to perform obedience, and make satisfaction for us. “For such an High Priest became us, who is holy,”&c. (Heb. 7:26.) This obedience now is our righteousness, and it is upon the ground of this that God is pleased with us. The blood of Christ is the satisfaction on account of which God receives us into his favor, and which he imputes unto us, as it is said, the blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanseth us from all sin, both of commission and omission. The shedding of his blood is the complement of his satisfaction, and is for this reason called our righteousness.

The questions, How can a rational creature be righteous before God? how can man, being a sinner, be just before God? and whether a rational creature can merit any thing at the hands of God? are to be distinguished from each other. We reply to the first question, that a rational creature may be just before God by an inherent conformity with the law, as the angels, and those that are blessed. To the second question we reply, that man as a sinner can be regarded as righteous only on the ground of the imputation of Christ’s merits; and this is the question of which we speak when treating the subject of justification. That man cannot be declared righteous upon the ground of his works is evident from this, that his works are unholy before his justification that after his justification they are also imperfect, and that if they were perfect as they will be in another life, they could nevertheless, not satisfy for those sins which are past, and which still stand against us. To the third question we answer that man can merit nothing from God, for it is said, “When ye shall have done all those things which are commanded you, say, “We are unprofitable servants; we have done that which was our duty to do.”(Luke 17:10.) Nor is the obedience of Christ meritorious in this respect, as though it added any thing to God, but it is called meritorious on account of the dignity of his person, because he who suffered was the Son of God.


At first view it seems absurd that we should be justified by any thing without us, or by something that belongs to another. It is necessary, therefore, that we should explain more fully how the satisfaction, or obedience of Christ becomes ours; for unless it be made ours, or be applied unto us, we cannot be justified by it, just as little as a wall can be white, if whiteness be not applied, or fixed upon it. We remark, then, that there are two ways in which the satisfaction of Christ is made over unto us: 1. God himself applies it unto us, that is, he makes the righteousness of Christ over unto us, and accepts of us as righteous on account of it, as if it were ours. 2. We apply it also unto ourselves when we receive the righteousness of Christ through faith, that is, we rest assured that God will grant it unto us, that he will regard us as righteous on account of it, and that he will free us from all guilt. There is, therefore, a double application; one in respect to God, and another in respect to us. The former is the imputation of Christ’s righteousness, when God accepts of that righteousness which Christ wrought out, that it might avail in our behalf, and accounts us as righteous in view of it, as much so as if w r e had never sinned, or had at least fully satisfied for our sins. The other side of this application which has respect to us, is the act itself of believing, in which we are fully persuaded that it is imputed and given unto us. Both sides of this application must necessarily concur in our justification; for God applies the righteousness of Christ unto us upon the condition, that we also apply the same unto ourselves by faith. For although any one were to offer another a benefit, yet if he to whom it is offered does not accept of it, it is not applied unto him, and so does not become his. Hence without this last application the former is of no account. And yet our application of the righteousness of Christ is from God; for he first imputes it unto us, and then works faith in us, by which we apply unto ourselves that which is imputed; from which it appears that the application of God precedes that which we make, (which is of faith) and is the cause of it, although it is not without ours, as Christ says, “Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you.”  (John 15:16.)

From what we have now said in regard to the application of the righteousness of Christ it appears, first, that it is no absurdity to say that we are justified by the righteousness of another; for the righteousness which is applied unto us by faith, and for which we are regarded as righteous, is not simply another s, but is made ours by application. The subject, indeed, in which this righteousness is found is Christ; but we are the object to which it has reference, inasmuch as it is imputed unto us. Secondly, the term imputation is not so comprehensive in its signification as application; for while the former is used in relation to God alone, the latter is used also in respect to us. Thirdly, that God applies the righteousness of Christ unto us in one way, and we apply it in another. God applies it by imputation while we apply it by faith, or by accepting of it. Fourthly, that to justify, in the sense in which the church uses the phrase, does not mean legally, which is to make one that is unjust, just, by infusing in him the qualities of righteousness; but evangelically, which is to regard one that is unrighteous, as righteous, arid to absolve him from guilt, and not to punish him, all of which is done on account of the satisfaction of another imputed unto him. It is in this sense that the Scriptures use the phrase, which may also be said of almost every language. In the Hebrew language it signifies to acquit one that is guilty, or to declare him innocent. “I will not justify the wicked.” “He that justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth the just, even they both are abomination to the Lord.”(Gen. 23:7. Prov. 17:15.) So the Greek word &*ar.uv (Greek Font Needed) signifies sometimes to regard, or to declare one righteous, and again it means to inflict punishment, the cause being known by a proper trial, as Suidas observes. It is in this last sense that Christ says, “By thy words thou shalt be justified.”(Matt. 12:37.) The former signification is used in two ways in the Scriptures. It signifies either, not to condemn, but to acquit on trial: “Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God s elect?” “It is God that justified” “He went down justified, rather than the other.”(Rom. 8:38. Luke 18:14.) Or it signifies to recognise and declare one righteous.  “Wisdom is justified of all her children.” “That thou mightest be justified when thou speaketh.”(Luke 7:35. Ps. 51:6.) Both significations, however, are reduced to the same thing. But the phrase, to justify, is never used among the Latins, and especially not by Latin authors in the sense of making holy, or of infusing a habit of righteousness. And it is evidently used in a different sense in the Scriptures, as the following passages clearly prove, which cannot be understood otherwise than of the acquital, and free acceptance of the sinner. “Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God’s elect?” “It is God that justifieth.” “The publican went down justified,” that is, absolved from guilt, and accepted of God rather than the Pharisee. “And by him all that believe are justified from all things from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses.”(Acts 13:39.) To justify in this last passage manifestly means to acquit, and to receive the forgiveness of sins. “Being justified freely by his grace.” “That he might be the justifier of him that believeth.” “We conclude that a man is justified without works.” “To him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness.” “Being justified by his blood.”(Rom. 3:24, 26, 28; 4:5; 5:9.)


God, out of his mere mercy and grace, imputes and applies unto us the righteousness of Christ, as he also predestinated us from everlasting to this grace, and freely chose us in Christ, as those to whom he might in his own time apply this righteousness “according to the good pleasure of his will,” as Paul says, (Eph. 1:5) not having been moved thereto by any goodness or holiness which he foresaw would be in us. And the reason of this arises from the fact, that there can be no goodness in us, except God first produce it. Hence all thoughts of merit on our part must be abandoned as inconsistent with the grace of God, and as a denial of it; for the mercy and grace of God constitute the sole cause of each form of the application of the righteousness of Christ. God out of his infinite goodness applies, and makes over unto us the merits of Christ, that we may apply the same unto ourselves. The cause, therefore, on account of which this application is made is in God alone, and not at all in us, for it can neither be any thing foreseen in us, nor even the apprehension or reception of this righteousness itself. Whatever goodness there may be in us is the effect of the application of the merits of Christ; for “What hast thou that thou didst not receive.” “For by grace are ye saved, through faith; and that not of yourselves it is the gift of God.”(1 Cor. 4:7. Eph. 2:8.)

Christ then presents himself in various ways for our justification:1. As the subject, and the ground of our righteousness. 2. As the moving cause: because he obtains it. 3. As the chief, and efficient cause; because he, together with the Father, justifies and gives us faith, by which we believe and receive it. The mercy of God is the moving cause of our justification as far as it respects God; the satisfaction of Christ is the formal cause; while our faith is the instrumental cause, apprehending and applying to ourselves the righteousness of Christ. We must observe therefore, that it cannot be said that we are justified in the same sense by the grace of God, by the merits of Christ, and by faith. The first must be understood of the moving cause, which is in God; the second of the formal cause, which is in Christ; and the third of the instrumental cause, which is in us. We are justified by the mercy or grace of God, as the chief moving cause, by which God was led to justify and save us. We are justified by the merits of Christ, partly as by the formal cause of our justification, inasmuch as God accepts of us in view of the obedience of Christ applied unto us, and account us as righteous seeing that we are covered with this, as with a garment; and partly as the moving and meritorious cause, inasmuch as God on account of this, acquits and frees us from the condemnation of the law. We are justified by faith, as by an instrumental cause, by which we apprehend the righteousness of Christ imputed unto us.

It is commonly said, that we are justified by faith correlatively, by which it is meant that we are justified by that which faith has respect to, which is the merit of Christ; or by that which it apprehends: for faith and the satisfaction of Christ have a mutual relation to each other; the one is that which receives, and the other is that which is received. This form of speech is correctly used, because when we thus speak, faith is understood to mean the formal cause of our justification, and the sense is, that the merit of Christ justifies us, and not faith; or that we are justified by that which is apprehended, and not by the instrument which apprehends. But justification may also be correctly attributed to faith, as the instrumental cause, without any such relation, for we may correctly say that we are justified by faith, meaning by it, that we are justified by it as a means: for the effect of an efficient cause is ordinarily attributed to the instrument. But when it is said, “faith is counted for righteousness,”(Rom. 4:5.) and when expressions of a similar character are used, they must necessarily be understood correlatively, in as much as faith is the instrument by which we apprehend the righteousness of Christ, or it is the hand with which we receive the righteousness of Christ.

Question. 61. Why do you say that you are righteous by faith only?

Answer. Not that I am acceptable to God on account of the worthiness of my faith, but because only the satisfaction, righteousness and holiness of Christ is my righteousness before God;[1] and I can receive the same and make it my own in no other way than by faith only.[2]

[1] 1 Cor 1:30-31, 2:2; [2] Isa 53:5; Rom 4:16, 10:10; Gal 3:22; 1 Jn 5:10-12


We are said to be justified by faith only:

1. Because we are justified by the object of faith alone, that is by the merits of Christ only, without which we can have no righteousness whatever: for we are justified for Christ’s sake. Nothing but the merit of Christ can be our righteousness in the sight of God, either as a whole, or a part only. We are justified only by believing, and receiving the righteousness of another, and not by our own works, or merit. All works are excluded from, our justification, yea even faith itself in as far as it is a virtue, or work.

2. Because the act which belongs properly to faith is to apprehend, and apply to itself the righteousness of Christ; yea, faith is nothing else than the acceptance itself, or the apprehension of the merits of Christ.

3. Because faith alone is the instrument which apprehends the satisfaction of Christ. Hence it is plain, why the exclusive particle only should be added, as it is in the Catechism, and be maintained against the Papist. It is done, 1. For the purpose of expressing what Paul affirms when he says: “We are justified freely by his grace, without the deeds of the laws:”And what Christ says; “only believe.”(Rom. 4:24, 28. Mark. 5:36.) 2. That all our own works, and merits, as well as those of others, may be excluded as being the cause of our justification, that faith may be understood correlatively. We are justified by faith only, that is, by the merits of Christ alone. 3. That not only all our merits, but that even faith itself may be excluded from that which is received by faith; so that when we say, we are justified by faith only, the sense is, that it is not by meriting, but only by receiving; as when it is said, This beggar is enriched only by receiving alms, all works and merits are excluded there from, yea, even the very acceptance of alms, in as far as it is viewed as a merit. It is for this reason, that Paul always says, that we are justified by faith, and through faith, as by an instrument; and never on account of faith, as the Papists will have it, who indeed admit both forms of expression, as if faith might be the application of Christ’s righteousness, and be also at the same time a certain work, or merit, by which we are counted worthy of being declared righteous, which is directly opposed to the very nature of faith. For if we were justified on account of our faith, then faith would no longer be the acceptance of the righteousness of another, but it would be the merit, and cause of our own righteousness; neither would it receive the satisfaction of another, for it would no longer stand in need of it. 4. That we may understand the necessity of faith for our justification, and may know that we are justified, not by the merit of faith, but yet just as little without faith, to receive the righteousness of Christ; because it is the province of faith to appropriate this to itself. 5. The orthodox Fathers often use the same form of speech, by faith only. Origen writes:  “The Apostles say, that the justification OF FAITH ONLY is sufficient, so that if any one ONLY BELIEVES, he may be justified, even though he does not per form any works.”  Ambrose says: “They are justified freely, who, with out working or rendering any thing in turn, are justified BY FAITH ONLY as the gift of God.” Again; “How can the Jews suppose that they are justified by the works of the law, seeing they have the justification of Abraham set before them, who was justified, not by the works of the law, but BY FAITH ONLY.  The law, therefore, is not necessary, when the sinner is justified before God by FAITH ONLY.”And again. “God has decreed that he who believes in Christ, should be saved without works, receiving the remission of sins freely BY FAITH ONLY.”  We are therefore justified by faith only, which means that it is by the merits of Christ alone, apprehended by faith.

This we must firmly maintain, and believe:1. For the glory of God, that so the sacrifice of Christ may not be impaired. 2. For our comfort, that we may be assured that our righteousness does not depend upon our works, (for if this were the case we should lose it thousands of times,) but upon the sacrifice and merit of Christ alone.